Before I begin, let me preface this by saying, I don't work for Microsoft, I don't sell SharePoint, this is merely my understanding of the SharePoint 2013 licensing model. As always, before making any money decisions based on the below, talk to your Microsoft rep. The below is just my understanding, you are responsible for any decision you may take.
With that aside, here is how I understand SharePoint 2013 licensing. Note that everything below is for on-prem SharePoint only. Also it goes without saying that you need to purchase windows server and SQL server licenses etc. on top of what you read below.
1. You need to buy two things - the SharePoint server, and CALs.
2. SharePoint server comes in SharePoint foundation, SharePoint Server.
3. CALs can be either enterprise or standard, and they can be bought as CALs for SharePoint or a CAL suite which includes exchange and lync. CALs can also be purchased and user CAL or device CAL.
- If you buy CALs for Office 365, you also get on-premises CAL rights.
4. There may be additional servers that you may have to purchase, such as Duet Enterprise, ACM server etc.
1. FAST search is no longer a separate product. Every SKU of SharePoint uses FAST.
2. SharePoint foundation has basic site collection search. SharePoint standard CAL has what can be considered as out of the box search. This includes best bets, people search, enterprise search, visual previews, etc.
3. SharePoint enterprise CAL has all the extensibility and dev story on search. What is notable here is that the content by search webpart is available only in enterprise.
4. No more search server. If you have search server, you get something like 100cals under SA I think.
Internet Facing Sites.
1. You need SharePoint enterprise license CAL to use SharePoint for Internet facing sites. This means Internet facing sites in SharePoint 2013 are about 5x cheaper than what you used to pay in SharePoint 2010. Microsoft is probably loosing money on this. You can of course go even cheaper using office 365.
2. There is also no FAST for Internet sites (or for intranet sites for that matter). It's all a part of the product now.
3. Extranet users don’t need CALs (big deal). On-Premise has no limit for external users, for Office 365, you get 10,000 external users with enterprise plans, 500 with P plans.
4. There is no SharePoint server for Internet sites.
1. SharePoint 2010 style workflows are available in all SKUs of SharePoint. But in comparison to SharePoint 2013 style workflows, they suck big time.
2. SharePoint 2013 style workflows that rely on workflow manager, are not available in SharePoint foundation.
Azure app hosting
1. Details are to be made available in early 2013.
1. .. Will cost extra. You have to purchase licenses from sap.
1. There is no need to buy CALs for external users.
2. You do need CALs for internal users.
3. Office 365 users get 10000 external user CALs.
4. External users means users that are not either your or your affiliates’ employees, or your or your affiliates’ onsite contractors or onsite agents.
5. You don’t need SharePoint for internet facing sites – just install SharePoint enterprise
1. SharePoint foundation does not have app marketplace or enterprise app catalog.
Sidenote: SharePoint foundation in 2013 in my opinion is severely gimped. I see SharePoint foundation as "let's pretend I have SharePoint" in 2013 - this wasn't the case in 2010.
External share by email
1. This is available in office 365 only.
ECM and WCM
1. Some basic features available in standard. But practically speaking if this is your target scenario, you're better off with enterprise.
2. Note that there is a seperate product called ACM server which will be released in first half of 2013. This is estimated to cost half of SharePoint enterprise. Plus it will require enterprise CALs.
3. For serious ECM, you have to go with on-prem, office 365 won't cut it. But things like machine translation, and automation services are available in standard.
1. Just like ECM and WCM, you're better off with enterprise. All the cool stuff like access services, Visio services, excel services, powerview etc are part of the enterprise only.
2. Plus you probably want to go with SQL server 2012 because a lot of the feature set depends on SQL server 2012.
3. BCS is available everywhere but with different feature sets.
4. Business intelligence is another scenario where I'd recommend on-prem over office 365.
Office web apps
1. Read is free. Yay!
2. Edit is also free - for external users. But internal users need office client licenses.